Your semen is then sent to a laboratory to measure the number of sperm present and look for any abnormalities in the shape morphology and movement motility of the sperm.
Andrological Evaluation of Male Infertility: A Laboratory Guide - Google книги
The lab will also check your semen for signs of problems such as infections. Often sperm counts fluctuate significantly from one specimen to the next. In most cases, several semen analysis tests are done over a period of time to ensure accurate results. If your sperm analysis is normal, your doctor will likely recommend thorough testing of your female partner before conducting any more male infertility tests.
Your doctor might recommend additional tests to help identify the cause of your infertility. These can include:. Often, an exact cause of infertility can't be identified.
Even if an exact cause isn't clear, your doctor might be able to recommend treatments or procedures that will result in conception. In cases of infertility, the female partner also is recommended to be checked. This can help to determine if she will require any specific treatments or if proceeding with assisted reproductive techniques is appropriate. In rare cases, male fertility problems can't be treated, and it's impossible for a man to father a child. Your doctor might suggest that you and your partner consider using sperm from a donor or adopting a child.
Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease. Evidence is still limited on whether — or how much — herbs or supplements might help increase male fertility. None of these supplements treats a specific underlying cause of infertility, such as a sperm duct defect or chromosomal disorder.
Some supplements might help only if you have a deficiency. Talk with your doctor before taking dietary supplements to review the risks and benefits of this therapy, as some supplements taken in high doses megadoses or for extended periods of time might be harmful.
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Coping with infertility can be difficult. It's an issue of the unknown — you can't predict how long it will last or what the outcome will be. Infertility isn't necessarily solved with hard work.
The emotional burden on a couple is considerable, and plans for coping can help. Set limits. Decide in advance how many and what kind of procedures are emotionally and financially acceptable for you and your partner, and determine a final limit. Fertility treatments can be expensive and often aren't covered by insurance.
Pathophysiology of Male Infertility Evaluating the Infertile Male Management of Male Infertility—Varicocele Repair Edocrine Disorders: Diagnosis and Management Sexual Dysfunction Semen Analysis The Role of Leukocytospermia in Male Infertility Genetics of Male Infertility Setting Up an Andrology Laboratory Quality Management of an Andrology Laboratory Sperm Selection in Assisted Reproductive Techniques Surgically Retrieved Sperm Samples Human Sperm Cryopreservation Sperm count refers to the number of sperm that are present in 1 ml of semen.
World Health Organization WHO guidelines suggest that a normal sperm count is at least 15 million per ml or no fewer than 39 million sperm per sample. Having less than this indicates a low sperm count. Some research suggests that up to 90 percent of male infertility issues result from abnormal sperm counts.
A systematic review on sperm DNA fragmentation in male factor infertility: Laboratory assessment
Home sperm analysis kits usually only test for sperm count. As this is just one aspect of male fertility, it is important that people see their doctor and get comprehensive sperm analysis to check for other factors affecting their sperm. Sperm motility is the ability of the sperm to move efficiently. Low motility can reduce the sperm's capacity to move through the female reproductive system to fertilize the egg.
In a typical sample, at least 50 percent of the sperm will demonstrate normal motility. Morphology refers to the size and the shape of the individual sperm. Normal sperm have a long tail and oval-shaped head. Abnormally sized or shaped sperm can have difficulty reaching, penetrating, and fertilizing the egg. Normal semen contains a minimum of 4 percent sperm with standard form. Although sperm count, motility, and morphology are three of the main factors that medical professionals will check when assessing male fertility, they are not the only factors.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC advise that a slightly abnormal sperm analysis does not mean that a person is permanently infertile. Instead, doctors can use the results as a tool to help identify what factors are causing fertility issues. People who receive abnormal results from a semen analysis typically undergo further testing to help identify the exact issue. In many cases, a person's fertility issues resolve with the right treatment. If the semen sample does not contain any sperm, people may be able to stop using condoms and other forms of birth control , as pregnancy is unlikely.
However, if sperm is still present, people should continue using contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies. They may need further sperm analysis tests until their semen no longer shows the presence of sperm.
Practical Guide to Sperm Analysis: Basic Andrology in Reproductive Medicine
A sperm analysis is one of the first tests that males undergo to look for the reasons for difficulty with conceiving. People also require sperm analysis to check the success of a vasectomy. If sperm analysis results are abnormal, a doctor will typically recommend further testing to help find the underlying cause and formulate a treatment plan. Many cases of male infertility are treatable with lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, and other interventions.
If these are unsuccessful, a doctor or fertility counselor can help people explore other options, such as donor sperm or adoption. Article last reviewed by Mon 19 November Visit our Fertility category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Fertility. All references are available in the References tab.
Cooper, T. Vogelsong, K.
World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. Human Reproduction Update , 16 3 , — Infertility FAQs. Kumar, N. Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences , 8 4 , — Menkveld, R. Clinical significance of the low normal sperm morphology value as proposed in the fifth edition of the WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen. Asian Journal of Andrology , 12 1 , 47— Semen analysis.
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