Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica


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Reflections on influential articles from Cartographica

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East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Counter-mapping initiatives, often without state assistance, attempt to exert power. As such, counter-mapping conforms to Jessop 's [20] notion of "governance without government". Another characteristic of governance is its "purposeful effort to steer, control or manage sectors or facets of society" towards a common goal. In brief, cartography , once the tool of kings and governments, [35] is now being used as a tool of governance - to advocate policy change from the grassroots. In contrast to expert knowledges, lay knowledges are increasingly valuable to decision-makers, in part due to the scientific uncertainty surrounding environmental issues.

For instance, counter-maps depicting traditional use of areas now protected for biodiversity have been used to allow resource use, or to promote public debate about the issue, rather than forcing relocation. In short, it can be seen that "maps are powerful political tools in ecological and governance discussions".

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Numerous counter-mapping types exist, for instance: protest maps, map art, counter-mapping for conservation, and PPGIS. In order to emphasise the wide scope of what has come to be known as counter-mapping, three contrasting counter-mapping examples are elucidated in this section: indigenous counter-mapping, community mapping, and state counter-mapping, respectively. Counter-mapping has been undertaken most in the Third World. The power of indigenous counter-mapping can be exemplified through the creation of Nunavut. In , Frank Arthur Calder and the Nisaga'a Nation Tribal Council brought an action against the Province of British Columbia for a declaration that aboriginal title to specified land had not been lawfully extinguished.

In , the Canadian Supreme Court found that there was, in fact, an aboriginal title.

Book Classics In Cartography Reflections On Influential Articles From Cartographica 2010

The Canadian government attempted to extinguish such titles by negotiating treaties with the people who had not signed them. Indigenous peoples have begun remapping areas of the world that were once occupied by their ancestors as an act of reclamation of land stolen from them by country governments. Indigenous peoples have begun this process all over the world from the Indigenous peoples from the United States, Aboriginal peoples from Australia, and Amazonian people from Brazil. The people of the lands have begun creating their own maps of the land in terms of the borders of the territory and pathways around the territory.

When Native peoples first began this process it was done by hand, but presently GPS systems and other technological mapping devices are used [44]. Indigenous maps are reconceptualizing the "average" map and creatively representing space as well as the culture of those who live in the space.

Classics in cartography : reflections on influential articles from Cartographica

Indigenous people are creating maps that are for their power and social benefit instead of the ones forced on them through different titling, and description. Indigenous peoples are also creating maps to adjust to the contamination and pollution that is present In their land.

Specifically in Peru, Indigenous peoples are using mapping to identify problem areas and innovating and creating strategies to combat these risks for the future [45]. White colonists saw land as property and a commodity to be possessed. As a result, as settlers grew in numbers and journeyed west, land was claimed and sold for profit. Indigenous peoples, on the other hand, saw themselves as connected with the land spiritually and that the land, instead owned them. Land to Aboriginal people is a major part of their identity and spirituality.

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They saw the land as being sacred and needing to be protected. Indigenous peoples believe it is their responsibility to take care of the land. Aboriginal people have always had a spiritual connection to their land The Indigenous people believed they were to serve the land while white colonists believed the land should serve them. As a result, when the two sides came in contact, they disputed over how to "claim" land.

The height of this conflict began to occur during Manifest Destiny as the white colonist population began to grow and move westward into more parts of Indigenous lands and communities. Maps represent and reflect how an individual or society names and projects themselves onto nature, literally and symbolically. Mapping, while seemingly objective is political and a method of control on territory. The difference between boundaries and territories made by the White colonists and Indigenous people were vastly different, and expressed their views on the land and nature.

Indigenous peoples' territory often ended at rivers, mountains, and hills or were defined by relationships between different tribes, resources, and trade networks. The relationships between tribes would determine the access to the land and its resources. In Indigenous maps the landmarks would be drawn on paper and in some cases described. Detailed knowledge of the thickness of ice, places of shelter and predators were placed in maps to inform the user for what to look for when in the territory.

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Maps made by White colonists in America were first based on populations, created territories based on the edges of civilization. After the creation of the United States government, state land was designated by Congress and intended to be given equally by latitude and longitudinal coordinates. In a special case, after the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase , the United States had to decide between the territory where slavery was legal and where it was not. The states were documented by their coordinates and borders were made at the numbered locations.

That is often how land would be stolen from Indigenous peoples. The land that would be "claimed" by the United States Government would stretch across Indigenous lands without consideration of their borders. Indigenous peoples' lands were absorbed by the borders of America's newly mapped states and were forced out as a result. Their livelihoods and mythology tied to the land was also destroyed. White colonists claimed the land for their own and Indigenous peoples were no longer allowed to occupy the space. Another way was the differences in the way each group mapped the land.


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The United States Government would not recognize a Tribes territory without a map and most tribes did not have maps that were in the style of European maps, therefore they were ignored. Community mapping can be defined as: "local mapping, produced collaboratively, by local people and often incorporating alternative local knowledge". Data are collected from diverse public domain sources; of which GPS tracks are the most important, collected by volunteers with GPS receivers.

Moreover, 'map parties' - social events which aim to fill gaps in coverage, help foster a community ethos. Thus, in opposition to notions that OSM is a radical cartographic counter-culture, [54] are contentions that OSM "simply recreates a mirror copy of existing topographic mapping ".

What has come to be known as counter-mapping is not limited to the activities of non-state actors within a particular nation-state; relatively weak states also engage in counter-mapping in an attempt to challenge other states. East Timor 's on-going effort to gain control of gas and oil resources from Australia, which it perceives at its own, is a form of counter-mapping. This dispute involves a cartographic contestation of Australia's mapping of the seabed resources between the two countries.

Landing in these conflict-ridden contexts, the research projects ReMap Lima and cLIMA sin Riesgo built upon an existing network of partner organisations and local community groups with whom the authors established a productive working relationship in , in support of existing processes for transformative change.

These projects have a strong mapping component where the reading, writing and audiencing stages are used to improve the spatial knowledge of these areas and to identify how risk is distributed and with what consequences for the most vulnerable. Besides the ambition of producing robust evidence and counter-map how these areas are represented, the mapping process is designed to bring together various stakeholders from state authorities, local communities, academics, NGOs, and to open up critical reflection and foster the design of integrated responses and co-financing mechanisms to reduce and prevent risk.

This interrogation contributes to the examination of the socio-environmental power struggles at play and the actions that are justified through cartographic devices. The process of reading maps as texts that bring forth particular arguments [ 24 , 25 ] facilitates the identification of those cartographic devices to be rewritten to contest hegemonic representations. Recent literature has provided valuable insights into how maps work, arguing that maps are not fixed representations but are rather in constant flux, as each encounter with a map produces new meanings and engagements with the world [ 26 ].

Although reading is subjective, we contend that a collective reflective position can be attained when the reading of maps is a debated process.

Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica
Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica
Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica
Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica
Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica
Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica
Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential Articles from Cartographica

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