Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior


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It will rapidly cool in less than years, to 1 million degrees. After that, its temperature will decrease much more slowly. At its birth, this neutron star is recovering the rotation of the previous star, following the conservation of angular momentum. It will rotate at a very high speed.

ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: FROM THE SURFACE TO THE INTERIOR

The Crab pulsar inside the nebula, for example, spins 30 times a second. Until recently, one supposed that a neutron star began by rotating at a very high speed, and slowed down with time. This scenario seems satisfactory for a lone star, but in the case of a binary system, where the companion is a small sized star, magnetic coupling effects with the forming accretion disk seems to cause a later acceleration of the spinning speed. The powerful magnetic and electrical field which surrounds the star will generate a thin beam of light, in the radio-wave frequencies.

This beam sweeps across the sky, in the same way a lighthouse beam sweeps across the sea. These stars are called pulsars Because the magnetic axis of the pulsar is not aligned with its rotational axis, the radio emission, generated by particles trapped in the magnetic field lines, will sweep across the sky, like a lighthouse beam sweeps across the sea. Some pulsars rotate a few hundred times per second. The rotation of a pulsar is exceedingly precise, and can be used as a cosmic clock. Neutron stars exhibit a very powerful magnetic field, anchored to their surface.

Isolated Neutron Stars: From the Surface to the Interior | SpringerLink

This field comes from the magnetic field of the initial star, compressed by the collapse of the supernova. It is about 10 12 Gauss, i. The core of a neutron star is an electrical conductor, because it contains a trace of free electrons and protons. The magnetic field rotates with the star, being anchored to its surface.

With such a strength, the magnetic waves and the related, magnetically-powered charged particles will carry off the star's rotational energy in a very efficient way, and suddenly brake its spinning movement. In some thousand years, the spinning velocity of the star will become as low as one revolution every five to ten seconds.


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When a magnetic field is this powerful, it can move material in the star's interior, and so apply very high stresses over the solid crust ; sometimes this crust can break, in the same way that the Earth's crust breaks in an earthquake under the stresses. At this time, the star ejects bursts of highly energetic particles, which will produce a brief, but intense emission of hard X-rays the neutron star radiates at this moment as much energy as the Sun radiates in years. This radiation emission can repeat sporadically. This phenomenon is called : Soft Gamma Repeaters.

This radiation comes from hot matter trapped inside the lines of the magnetic field, rotating with the star. After 10, years, the magnetic energy source in these stars begins to run down, and the magnetar slowly becomes invisible. The strange stars If the mass of the neutron star is high enough, the density in its core can be so high that the appearance of heavy particles could become possible : hyperons, pions In fact, nobody really knows what can happen, because the theory about the strong interaction which rules such an environment under high density is not currently understood well enough.

This very fast transformation, between one second and no more than ten minutes, leads to a "quark star", also called "strange star". Such a star is not ruled only by gravitation, but essentially by quantum chromodynamics QCD. So, it has no minimal mass, and a radius proportional to its mass. A strange star would typically have a mass between one and two solar masses, and a radius about 10km, less than the radius of a neutron star.

Accretion by isolated neutron stars Pages Ikhsanov, N. Chandra observations of neutron stars: an overview Pages Weisskopf, M. Persistent and transient blank field sources Pages Treves, A. The magnificent seven: magnetic fields and surface temperature distributions Pages Haberl, Frank.

Isolated neutron stars: magnetic fields, distances, and spectra Pages Kerkwijk, M. Measuring proper motions of isolated neutron stars with Chandra Pages Motch, Christian et al. The trigonometric parallax of the neutron star Geminga Pages Faherty, Jacqueline et al.


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Towards self-consistent models of isolated neutron stars Pages Pons, J. Neutron star surface emission: Beyond the dipole model Pages Zane, Silvia. Molecular systems in a strong magnetic field Pages Turbiner, Alexander V. Ultraviolet emission from young and middle-aged pulsars Pages Kargaltsev, Oleg et al. New phase-coherent measurements of pulsar braking indices Pages Livingstone, Margaret A.

Thermal X-ray emission from hot polar cap in drifting subpulse pulsars Pages Gil, Janusz et al. Impact of neutron star oscillations on the accelerating electric field in the polar cap of pulsar Pages Timokhin, A. Heat blanketing envelopes and thermal radiation of strongly magnetized neutron stars Pages Potekhin, Alexander Y.

Equation of state of neutron star cores and spin down of isolated pulsars Pages Haensel, P. Equation of state constraints from neutron stars Pages Lattimer, James M. Neutron star masses: dwarfs, giants and neighbors Pages Popov, Sergei et al. Modelling the dynamics of superfluid neutron stars Pages Andersson, N. Cooling of neutron stars with strong toroidal magnetic fields Pages Page, Dany et al. Internal heating and thermal emission from old neutron stars Pages Reisenegger, Andreas et al. Thermal emission areas of heated neutron star polar caps Pages Ruderman, M.

Cooling of magnetars with internal layer heating Pages Kaminker, A. What do exotic equations of state have to offer? Pages Horvath, J. Precession as a probe of the neutron star interior Pages Link, Bennett. Exotic bulk viscosity and its influence on neutron star r-modes Pages Chatterjee, Debarati et al.

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Nucleon superfluidity versus thermal states of isolated and transiently accreting neutron stars Pages Levenfish, K. Instabilities in rotating relativistic stars driven by viscosity Pages Saijo, Motoyuki et al. RX J Spin-down of young pulsars with a fallback disk Pages Li, X. Search for radio pulsations in four anomalous X-ray pulsars and discovery of two new pulsars Pages Burgay, Marta et al.

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www.labranzeeds.cl/wp-includes/mile/459-conocer-chicas.php Mountains on neutron stars Pages Haskell, B. On the peculiarities in the rotational frequency evolution of isolated neutron stars Pages Biryukov, Anton et al. Giant pulses of pulsar radio emission Pages Kuzmin, A. On the role of the current loss in radio pulsar evolution Pages Beskin, V.

Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior
Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior
Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior
Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior
Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior
Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior
Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior
Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior Isolated Neutron Stars: from the Surface to the Interior

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